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arcuate nucleus, median eminence, and pituitary pars tuberalis
2021, Manual of Clinical Neurology
The arcuate nucleus (ARC) is located in the mediobasal hypothalamus and forms a morphological and functional entity with the median eminence (ME), the ARC-ME. The ARC comprises several different types of neurons that control prolactin release, food intake and metabolism, as well as reproduction and the onset of puberty. ME lacks a blood-brain barrier and provides an input for peripheral signals (nutrients, leptin, ghrelin). ARC neurons are adjacent to the wall of the third ventricle. This facilitates the exchange of signals to and from the cerebrospinal fluid. The ventricular wall is composed of thanocytes that perform different functions. Axons from ARC neurons contribute to the tuberoinfundibular tract that terminates in the EM at the pituitary portal vessels (HPV) and establish one of the neurohumoral connections between the hypothalamus and pituitary. ARC neurons are reciprocally connected to several other hypothalamic nuclei, brainstem, and reward pathways. Pituitary pars tuberalis (PT) is associated with MS and HPV. The PT, an important interface of the neuroendocrine system, is mandatory for the control of seasonal functions. This contribution provides an update of our knowledge on the ARC-ME complex and the PT which, among other things, is necessary to understand the pathophysiology of metabolic and reproductive diseases.
Clinical pathways and biomarkers for weight variability in early Parkinson's disease
2022, npj Parkinson's disease
Recommended Articles (6)
The surface layer containing immunoevasive protein (IEP) that covers polydnavirus particles is essential for viral infection.
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, Volume 115, 2014, pgs. 26-3
Polydnaviruses (PDVs) are unique symbiotic viruses associated with parasitoid wasps: PDV particles are injected into lepidopteran hosts along with wasp eggs and express genes that interfere with aspects of host physiology, such as immune defenses and development. Recent comparative genomic studies of PDV have significantly improved our understanding of its origin, as well as the organization of the genome. However, the structural features of functional PDV particles remain ambiguous. To clarify the structure ofCotesia kariyaiPDV (CkPDV), we focused on immunoevasive protein (IEP), which is a mediator of wasp immunoevasion of the host insect hemocyte encapsulation reaction, as it has been shown to be present on the particle surface. of the virus. We found that IEP tends to polymerize and forms a previously unidentified thin surface layer that covers CkPDV particles. This outer surface layer appeared brittle and was easily removed from CkPVD particles by mechanical stress factors such as agitation, which prevented CkPDV from expressing the encoded genes in target host tissues, such as adipose tissue or hemocytes. In addition, we detected IEP homolog gene expression in wasp venom reservoirs, implying that IEP has another unknown biological function in wasp or parasitized hosts. Taken together, these results demonstrate that womenC. kariyaiwasps produce the thin, brittle layer partially composed of IEP to cover the outer surfaces of the CkPDV particles; otherwise they cannot function as infectious agents in the host wasp. The fact that the IEP family proteins are expressed both in venom reservoirs and in oviducts suggests a close relationship between both tissues in the development of the wasp's parasitism strategy.
Sequence variation and differential splicing of the midgut cadherin gene in Trichoplusia ni
Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Volume 43, Number 8, 2013, pp. 712-723
Insect midgut cadherin serves as an important receptor for Cry toxins fromthuringiensis bacillus(Bt). Cadherin variation in insect populations provides genetic potential for the development of cadherin-based Bt resistance in insect populations. Caterpillar cadherin sequence analysis,Trichoplusia is, along with cadherins from 18 other Lepidoptera, showed a similar phylogenetic relationship between cadherins and Lepidopteran phylogeny. Midgut cadherin in three laboratory populations ofT.nishowed high variability, although resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin inT.niThe strain is not genetically associated with mutations in the cadherin gene. A total of 142 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the cadherin cDNAs ofT.nistrains, including 20 missense mutations. In addition, insertion and deletion polymorphisms (indels) were also identified in cadherin alleles inT.ni. More interestingly, the results of this study reveal that differential mRNA splicing also occurs in cadherin gene expression. Therefore, cadherin variation in the insect midgut may not only be caused by mutations in the cadherin gene, but may also result from alternative splicing of its mRNA regulated by factors acting on the cadherin gene.trans. Analysis of the alleles of the cadherin genes in the F2, F3 and F4 progeny of the cross between the resistant and the susceptible Cry1Ac strain after consecutive selections with Cry1Ac for three generations showed that selection with Cry1Ac did not result in an increase in the frequencies of the cadherin alleles from the resistant strain.
In adult twins, visceral fat accumulation depends more on exceeding sex-specific adiposity thresholds than on genetics
Metabolism, Volume 64, Number 9, 2015, pp. 991-998
We recently reported sex-specific (male = 23%, female = 38%) percentage body fat (%BG) thresholds above which visceral adipose tissue (VAT) increases significantly. Using monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, we examined the influence of genetics on regional fat distribution as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, above and below these sex-specific thresholds for VAT accumulation. .
Fifty-eight pairs of twins (44 MZ, 14 DZ) were recruited from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Segmented linear regression was used to assess the threshold between VAT mass and %GC by sex and by zygosity. To assess the effect of genetics on VAT accumulation, Dunnett's T3 compared MZ and DZ pairs, regardless of whether the twin pairs were above the adiposity threshold or not.
%GC thresholds have been identified for the accrual of VAT (%GC: M=20.6%, F=39.4%). The specific zygosity thresholds were not significantly different (p>0.05). If at least one twin was below the threshold, DZ twins still showed greater within-pair differences than MZ pairs in %GC (p=0.023), but not in VAT (p=0.121).
Using a double study approach, we did not observe zygosity differences for the threshold at which VAT accumulates. Furthermore, for the first time, we observe that although total GC is influenced by genetics, VAT accumulation may be more dependent on whether a person's %G is above the sex-specific adiposity threshold. These results suggest that there may not be a genetic predisposition to VAT accumulation, but rather the result of a predisposition to total fat accumulation.
Letter to the editor about: Lu Y.P. et al., Non-oxidized PTH (n-oxPTH) is associated with graft loss in kidney transplant recipients, Clin Chim Acta 508 (2020) 92–97
Chemical Act Clinic, Volume 512, 2021, pgs. 18-19
Absorbent and luminescent metal coated emulsions for microvelocimeter
Microelectronic Engineering, Volume 158, 2016, pp. 69-74
Fluorescent latex beads have been widely used as tracers in microfluidics in recent decades. They have the advantage of being compatible with the density of water and of being easily located by fluorescence microscopy. We recently synthesized silver-coated oil droplets that are luminescent and absorbent by first coating the oil interface with a polydopamine layer and then depositing a silver layer via a redox process. They have an average diameter of 6μm and their density was combined with the density of water, adjusting the thickness of the metallic layer. In this work we use these particles as tracers to measure the velocity profile of an aqueous solution in a PDMS microchannel with rectangular cross section. This allowed us to confirm the predictions of the Stokes equation with results comparable to ordinary Styrofoam particles.
What is the relationship between the medial preoptic area, the lamina terminalis organum vasculosum, and Kallmann syndrome?
Medical Hypothesis, Volume 81, Number 2, 2013, pp. 219-221
The medial preoptic area is a structure located in the anteroventral hypothalamic region of the third ventricle and is closely related to the development of the olfactory brain and sexual differentiation of the brain. The medial preoptic area surrounds the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, and both structures are the major areas where gonadotropin-releasing hormone synthesis occurs in the brain. Neurons that synthesize gonadotropin-releasing hormone migrate from the medial nasal epithelium to the rostral brain and reach the organo vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and medial preoptic area. Kallmann syndrome is a genetic disorder that combines hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia. Hypogonadism is characterized by absent or reduced levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and anosmia due to olfactory bulb aplasia. This article speculates on the connection between the development of the medial preoptic area, the lamina terminalis organum vasculosum, and the olfactory bulbs with Kallmann syndrome, since the anteroventral region of the third ventricle is crucial for the normal development of these structures and their connection with the olfactory nerves and sexual maturation.
Copyright © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
What is the role of the infundibular nucleus? ›
The infundibular nucleus is involved in reproduction, pain, eating behavior and metabolism, thyroid hormone feedback growth, and dopamine regulation. The horseshoe-shaped infundibular (or arcuate) nucleus surrounds the lateral and posterior entrance of the infundibulum and is situated outside the blood–brain barrier.What is infundibular nucleus of hypothalamus? ›
The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (also known as ARH, ARC, or infundibular nucleus) is an aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle and the median eminence.What is the arcuate nucleus of the hippocampus? ›
The arcuate nucleus (ARC) is located in the mediobasal hypothalamus and forms a morphological and functional entity with the median eminence (ME), the ARC-ME. The ARC comprises several distinct types of neurons controlling prolactin release, food intake, and metabolism as well as reproduction and onset of puberty.What is the meaning of arcuate nucleus? ›
Arcuate nucleus: A collection of neurons (nerve cells) in the hypothalamus of the brain. Some arcuate neurons contain dopamine and act to inhibit the release of the hormone prolactin by the pituitary gland. Other arcuate neurons contain a substance called neuropeptide Y (NPY) and influence hunger.What part of the brain does the infundibulum belong to? ›
Your pituitary is connected to your hypothalamus through a stalk of blood vessels and nerves called the pituitary stalk (also known as infundibulum).What does the arcuate Infundibular nucleus produce? ›
Neurons co-synthesizing kisspeptin (KP), neurokinin B (NKB), and dynorphin (“KNDy neurons”) in the hypothalamic arcuate/infundibular nucleus (INF) form a crucial component of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinizing hormone (LH) “pulse generator.” The goal of our study was to characterize KP neuron ...What is found in the infundibulum? ›
The infundibulum or neurohypophysis is composed of axons originating from hypothalamic neurons of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, the sources of oxytocin and vasopressin. In their course, these axons feature eosinophilic, granular, hormone-rich expansions termed Herring bodies (Fig.Does the hypothalamus contain the infundibulum? ›
Because of its many eminences, the hypothalamus is an irregular structure that roughly forms a diamond. It is composed of four main structures2: the tuber cinereum, the median eminence, the infundibulum, and the mamillary bodies. The tuber cinereum lies centrally on the inferior aspect of the hypothalamus.Does hypothalamus have a nucleus? ›
The hypothalamus is a bilateral collection of nuclei divided into three zones surrounding the third ventricle and the mammillary bodies. Generally, the periventricular zone nuclei regulate the endocrine system, and the medial and lateral nuclei regulate autonomic and somatic behavior.What does arcuate mean in anatomy? ›
An arcuate uterus is a minor irregularity in the shape of your uterus. Unlike a typical pear-shaped uterus, an arcuate uterus has a small dent at the top of the uterus. It doesn't cause health concerns and doesn't require treatment. Living With.
What is the arcuate nucleus anatomy? ›
The arcuate nucleus surrounds the ventral part of the third ventricle and contains densely packed small neurons with 1-3 dendrites. At least fifteen transmitters and neuropeptides have been found in perikarya of arcuate neurons. Each transmitter and neuropeptide have a characteristic distribution.What are two types of neurons found in arcuate nucleus? ›
The arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus contains two sets of neurons that express either the neuropeptide proopiomelanocortin (POMC) or coexpress agouti-related protein (AGRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY).What is the role of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus? ›
The arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus is particularly regarded as a critical platform that integrates circulating signals of hunger and satiety reflecting energy stores and nutrient availability.What is the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus? ›
The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) is a critical component of forebrain pathways that regulate a variety of neuroendocrine functions, including an important role in relaying leptin signals to other parts of the hypothalamus.What is the hippocampus known for? ›
Hippocampus is a complex brain structure embedded deep into temporal lobe. It has a major role in learning and memory. It is a plastic and vulnerable structure that gets damaged by a variety of stimuli. Studies have shown that it also gets affected in a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders.What is the infundibulum quizlet? ›
What Is The Infundibulum? A stalk that attaches the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus.Is the infundibulum part of the uterus? ›
Definition. The infundibulum of the uterine tube is the beginning of the uterine tube, just after the abdominal ostium of uterine tube, and is in relation to the free border and medial surface of the ovary.What is attached to pituitary by infundibulum? ›
The hypothalamus region lies inferior and anterior to the thalamus. It connects to the pituitary gland by the stalk-like infundibulum.What is the nucleus accumbens made of? ›
Conclusion: The nucleus accumbens is made up of an 'electrophysiological coincidence detector' or shell serially connected to a 'motor sequencer' or core, both supporting the role of the nucleus accumbens as a limbic-motor interface.What is the Subthalamus made up of? ›
The subthalamic nucleus is composed entirely of neural tissue. It does not directly influence any muscles, but it does play a role in modulating movement with the other components of the basal ganglia. Damage to the subthalamic nucleus can result in a disorder of movement called hemiballismus.
What does nucleus accumbens produce? ›
Dopamine has been shown to be the major neurotransmitter of the nucleus accumbens and plays an important role in the experience of reward and pleasure. The nucleus accumbens is thus associated with the mesolimbic dopamine pathway and is said to mediate the psychomotor effects of stimulant drugs and addiction.What is an infundibulum aneurysm? ›
Abstract. Objective and importance: Infundibula (IFs) are funnel-shaped symmetrical enlargements that occur at the origins of cerebral arteries and are apparent on 7 to 25% of otherwise normal angiograms. They are frequently considered as normal anatomic variants of no pathogenic significance.What is the normal size of pituitary infundibulum? ›
The normal pituitary stalk tapers from superior to inferior. It measures 3.25 ± 0.56 (SD) mm at the level of the optic chiasm and narrows to 1.91 ± 0.40 mm at its insertion into the pituitary gland .How thick is a normal pituitary stalk? ›
The diameter of the normal pituitary stalk measured on oblique-axial images was 2.32 ± 0.39 mm for the AP diameter and 2.16 ± 0.37 mm for the transverse diameter at the pituitary insertion. The AP diameter was 3.25 ± 0.43 mm and the transverse diameter was 3.35 ± 0.44 mm, respectively, at the level of the optic chiasm.What is infundibulum in endocrinology? ›
The pituitary stalk, known as the infundibulum or infundibular stalk, is the connection between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, especially the posterior pituitary gland.What are disorders of the hypothalamus? ›
Nutrition problems, such as eating disorders (anorexia), extreme weight loss. Blood vessel problems in the brain, such as aneurysm, pituitary apoplexy, subarachnoid hemorrhage. Genetic disorders, such as Prader-Willi syndrome, familial diabetes insipidus, Kallmann syndrome.What is the infundibulum of the skull? ›
The frontal infundibulum is a term that refers to the funnel-shaped inferior narrowing of the frontal sinus. Together with the frontal ostium and frontal recess, it forms the frontal sinus outflow tract.Where is the hypothalamus quizlet? ›
Located at the base of the brain. Regulates many of the basic functions of our body, such as temperature, water balance and heart rate. Many of the functions of the hypothalamus are carried out through the pituitary gland.What are 4 things hypothalamus? ›
The hypothalamus helps manage your body temperature, hunger and thirst, mood, sex drive, blood pressure and sleep.Does the brain have a nucleus? ›
The vertebrate brain contains hundreds of distinguishable nuclei, varying widely in shape and size. A nucleus may itself have a complex internal structure, with multiple types of neurons arranged in clumps (subnuclei) or layers.
What is the infundibulum in the endocrine system? ›
The pituitary stalk, known as the infundibulum or infundibular stalk, is the connection between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, especially the posterior pituitary gland.What hormones does the infundibulum produce? ›
Neuroendocrine cells in the hypothalamus produce the hormones oxytocin and vasopressin. The axons of these cells pass through the pituitary stalk (infundibulum) to the posterior pituitary, where they are released into the bloodstream.Is infundibulum an aneurysm? ›
The main importance of an infundibulum is that it may be mistaken for a saccular (berry) aneurysm (which is rounded and has the branch at its base). An infundibulum in most cases measures less than 3 mm. Unlike an aneurysm, an infundibulum is not believed to be a risk for rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage.What is an arterial infundibulum? ›
By definition, an infundibulum is a conical, triangular, or funnel-shaped dilatation of the origin of a major branch of the internal carotid artery (ICA).How can I improve my pituitary gland function? ›
- eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, which are great sources of fiber, vitamins, and minerals.
- choosing good sources of fats, such as those that contain omega-3 fatty acids and monounsaturated fats.
- opting for whole grains over refined grains.
- reducing sodium intake.
Pituitary gland disorders include acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome, diabetes insipidus, empty sella syndrome, hypopituitarism and pituitary tumors. Pituitary problems can be caused by pituitary tumors, most of which are benign.Can an infundibulum rupture? ›
Abstract. Hemorrhage due to the rupture of the infundibular dilatation of the posterior communicating artery (ID of the PCo-A) occurs infrequently. The preferred treatment of such hemorrhages is surgical clipping through craniotomy. There are few reports about endovascular coil embolization in such cases.What is the difference between aneurysm and infundibulum? ›
An aneurysm is, most often, a kind of bubble located near or at origin of a vessel (image on right). An infundibulum, on the other hand, is a wide base, like a pedestal, of a vessel (image on left). In an aneurysm, the branch is located next to the aneurysm.Where is the infundibulum of the uterus? ›
Definition. The infundibulum of the uterine tube is the beginning of the uterine tube, just after the abdominal ostium of uterine tube, and is in relation to the free border and medial surface of the ovary.What structures are located in the infundibulum? ›
Hair follicle: the infundibulum is the cup or funnel in which a hair follicle grows. Infundibulum (heart): The infundibulum of the heart, or conus arteriosus, is the outflow portion of the right ventricle. Lung: The alveolar sacs of the lungs, from which the air chambers (alveoli) open, are also called infundibula.
Why is it called the infundibulum? ›
It's the Latin word for a funnel, derived from infundere, “to pour”, plus the ending –bulum which formed the names of instruments. In English, it turns up in various anatomical contexts for something funnel-shaped.