Neuroanatomy, Hypothalamus (2023)


Landmarks that define regions of the hypothalamus include the lamina terminalis, the pituitary gland, the mamillary bodies, and the superior hypothalamic sulcus.

The hypothalamus is a bilateral collection of nuclei divided into three zones around the third ventricle and the mamillary bodies. In general, the periventricular zone nuclei regulate the endocrine system, and the medial and lateral nuclei regulate autonomic and somatic behavior.

The hypothalamus is centrally located in the brain and connects to the brain stem via the dorsal longitudinal fasciculus, to the cerebral cortex via the medial forebrain bundle, to the hippocampus via the fornix, to the amygdala via the stria terminalis, to the thalamus via the mammillothalamic tract, the pituitary gland through the median. , and the retina via the retinohypothalamic tract.

structure and function

Generally speaking, the hypothalamus is a high-level sensory integration and motor output area that maintains homeostasis by controlling endocrine, autonomic, and somatic behavior.

First, the hypothalamus receives internal stimuli through receptors for circulating hormones. The blood-brain barrier is particularly permeable in the subfornical organ and in the organum vasculosum around the hypothalamus, allowing a sense of blood osmolarity. When osmolarity increases during dehydration, antidiuretic hormone (ADH) causes renal reabsorption of water. The hypothalamus senses external stimuli through the spinothalamic tract, which carries somatic sensory information, especially pain. The hypothalamus is involved in limbic sensory integration through the fornix and mammillothalamic tract of Papez's circuit and the connection of the stria terminalis to the amygdala. Sensory perceptions at the level of the cortex are received through the medial bundle of the forebrain. The retinohypothalamic tract carries light signals to the suprachiasmatic nucleus that regulate the daily pattern of hormone release. Integration of these inputs at the hypothalamic level leads to appropriate physiological and behavioral responses that sustain life over time.[1]

Second, hypothalamic output regulates the endocrine system, the autonomic system, and somatic behavior. There are 11 unique nuclei in the area below the thalamus.

The paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei produce the peptides oxytocin and ADH, which are released from neuronal axons in the posterior pituitary capillaries. These are hormones and neurotransmitters. Oxytocin in the systemic circulation controls the contraction of the uterus during labor and the milk that decreases during breastfeeding. Systemic ADH increases the translocation of aquaporin to the apical membrane of the distal convoluted tubule, increasing water absorption during dehydration. These hormones share a common peptide, which means that excess oxytocin, or the synthetic oxytocin used in labor and delivery, can activate renal ADH receptors. Thus, hyponatremia is a side effect of synthetic oxytocin. ADH also causes vasoconstriction to increase blood pressure in severe hypovolemia and releases von Willebrand factor from the Weibel-Palade bodies of endothelial cells to control bleeding. Furthermore, both oxytocin and ADH, which act as central neurotransmitters, are involved in pair binding.[2]

The preoptic, anterior, and posterior nuclei regulate body temperature by decreasing sympathetic tone to skeletal muscle, increasing sympathetic tone to the skin, dilating capillaries, and improving heat exchange with the outside. Males and females differ in the distribution of estrogen receptors in the preoptic nucleus, which affects sexual and maternal behavior.[3]

The suprachiasmatic nucleus regulates hormone secretion and daily behavior according to light entering through the eyes. The 24-hour oscillations of clock transcription factor activity and action potential frequency increase locomotor activity during the day and decrease at night—in addition, cortisol peaks around sunrise and growth hormone peaks around midnight. Most myocardial infarctions occur early in the morning due to the spike in cortisol, the stress hormone, which raises blood pressure.[4]

The ventromedial nucleus regulates feeding behavior. Destruction of this area causes hyperphagia, as seen in Prader-Willi syndrome. Satiety, perceived by this area, leads to a decrease in food intake. The dorsomedial nucleus controls anger behavior. Lack of satiety can lead to aggression. The lateral hypothalamus senses hunger and increases eating. Destruction of the lateral area causes anorexia.[5]

(Video) Neurology | Hypothalamus Anatomy & Function

The arcuate nucleus releases hormones secreted by axon terminals in the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal venous system to control the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary. Corticotropin-releasing hormone causes anterior pituitary cells to release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) into the capillaries that drain into the cerebral venous system. ACTH travels through the systemic circulation to stimulate the adrenal cortex (zona reticularis) to produce the stress response hormone cortisol. Due to its diversity of inputs, the hypothalamus allows the body to respond to physiological and psychological stressors. Again, cortisol production varies over the course of a 24-hour day, with the highest level at sunrise and the lowest at sunset due to the interconnections between the arcuate and suprachiasmatic nuclei. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone leads to the systemic secretion of TSH, which increases the synthesis and release of thyroid hormone to regulate metabolism. The hypothalamus senses the body's energy stores in part through receptors for the hormone leptin in adipocytes. When stores are low, the hypothalamus slows metabolism by reducing thyroid hormone.

Pulsed GnRH leads to increased release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Continuous GnRH causes decreased LH and FSH release. LH stimulates male testes to produce testosterone and female ovaries to produce estrogen. These hormones lead to secondary sexual development in males and females, respectively. An LH surge causes ovulation. FSH stimulates male spermatogenesis and female oocyte maturation. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) leads to the release of growth hormone (GH), which stimulates tissue growth and metabolism. Somatostatin decreases GH release and antagonizes GHRH. Dopamine inhibits prolactin secretion as part of the hypothalamic-pituitary dopamine circuit. Phenothiazine antipsychotics interrupt this pathway, leading to a side effect of galactorrhea. Many of these hormones can be manipulated clinically by synthetic analogues. They are treatments for diseases such as uterine leiomyomas, anovulation, hypogonadism, breast and prostate cancer, contraceptives and acromegaly.[6]

The mammillary nucleus contributes to the limbic system as part of Papez's circuit. It is also involved in memory formation and controls exploratory behavior.[7]Bilateral mamillary body lesions are characteristic of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, which presents with anterograde and possibly retrograde amnesia.

The hypothalamus sits at the top of a motor hierarchy, which includes the cerebral cortex, limbic system, brainstem, and spinal cord motor neurons. The hypothalamus integrates internal and external information about the state of the organism and controls patterns of action to maintain homeostasis throughout life. Sensory areas in the cerebral cortex provide abstract sensory perceptions. The limbic system provides powerful emotional stimuli. The spinohypothalamic tract provides information about pain and temperature. The brainstem produces serotonin and norepinephrine. The hypothalamus integrates these stimuli and activates action patterns and postures in the cerebral cortex and brainstem. These signals travel down the spine to the muscles and produce the behavior.[8]


The notochord induces neurulation around the third week of gestation. Noggin, cordin, bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8)are some of the genes involved. The neural tube forms from the ectoderm and closes by the sixth week. The rostral end will be the terminal lamina. The neural tube differentiates into three primary vesicles for the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain, in addition to the spinal cord. The forebrain differentiates into the telencephalon and diencephalon, the midbrain remains the midbrain, and the hindbrain becomes the metencephalon and myelencephalon. These structures continue to differentiate into adult brain structures. The hypothalamus and pituitary are derived from the diencephalon. In addition, the neural tube is separated into alar (sensory) and basal (motor) plates, which are separated by the sulcus limitans. The hypothalamus is derived from interneurons in the alarm plate, making it a sensory and motor integration center.[2]

Blood supply and lymphatic diseases

The hypothalamus is supplied by the circle of Willis, which surrounds the inferior, anteromedial branches of the anterior cerebral artery, the posteromedial branches of the posterior communicating artery, and the thalamoperforating branches of the posterior cerebral artery.

Venous drainage is largely through the circle of the intercavernous sinuses. The hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal portal system is a capillary plexus that transmits hormone-releasing hormones from the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland.

Astroglial podocytes form the blood-brain barrier surrounding podocytes around capillaries. These cells protect the brain from toxins in the blood and facilitate the transport of nutrients to neurons. Astroglia also form a system of microscopic perivascular channels that permeate the brain and transmit lymphatics similar to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The system allows the CSF to remove metabolic waste and distribute glucose, amino acids, lipids and neurotransmitters. This system is most active during sleep and contributes to your recovery function. Arterial pulsatility drives glymphatic flow, suggesting that exercise may also improve it. Aging, brain trauma, and ischemia reduce CSF flow. In addition, larger lymphatic vessels in the meninges help absorb interstitial fluid in the dural venous sinuses.[9][10]

surgical considerations

Pituitary adenomas are the most common tumors affecting the hypothalamus. They can exert a mass effect causing headache and visual changes, such as bitemporal hemianopia due to compression of the optic chiasm. They can produce hormones, causing endocrine disorders. Prolactinomas cause galactorrhea and suppress gonadotropins, leading to decreased libido and infertility. Growth hormone-producing tumors cause gigantism and acromegaly. ACTH-producing tumors cause Cushing's disease due to hypercortisolism. Tumors producing gonadotropins can cause precocious puberty or hirsutism. The preferred method of tumor removal is transsphenoidal. One complication is damage to the hypothalamus, which can cause osmotic, autonomic, or alimentary dysregulation.[11]Complications of surgery include SIADH, central diabetes insipidus, and cerebral salt wasting.

(Video) Neuroanatomy S1 E4: Hypothalamus and Limbic System #neuroanatomy #ubcmedicine

clinical significance

The hypothalamus regulates feeding through the leptin and ghrelin pathways. Energy expenditure is regulated through the balance between proopiomelanocortin (POMC)/cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcription (CART) and neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons in the arcuate nucleus. Leptin is a hormone produced by adipocytes in relation to their energy reserves. High reserves mean high leptin. The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus receives the signal and decreases eating and increases energy expenditure through POMC/CART activity. These transmitters act in the nuclei responsible for feeding, increasing body temperature, metabolism, locomotor activity and the production of gonadotropins. On the contrary, the decrease in fat reserves leads to an increase in feeding and cortisol (through the action of NPY/AgRP transmitters in the hypothalamus) and a decrease in body temperature, metabolism, locomotion and the production of gonadotropins. There is ongoing investigation into the role of the MC4 receptor and leptin resistance in obesity.[12]

The hypothalamus is also responsible for the acute phase immune response. White blood cells cause endothelial production of PGE2, which activates prostaglandin receptors in the paraventricular and preoptic nuclei. This causes fever by raising the body temperature set point, triggering a sympathetic response and causing muscle contractions (chills). Hepatic production of cortisol and acute phase proteins is increased. These effects accumulate in the malaise and unhealthy behavior typical of many illnesses.[13]

  • Prolactin leads to lymphocyte survival and induces differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursors. Multiple sclerosis usually improves during pregnancy.[14]

  • The mammillary bodies are destroyed by thiamine deficiency, leading to Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's psychosis with prominent amnesia.[15]

  • Cerebral salt loss is a common complication of traumatic brain injury, stroke, or intracranial hemorrhage. Findings include hypotonic hyponatremia and polyuria with increased urinary sodium. Treatment is salt supplementation followed by fludrocortisone.

  • SIADH is a complication of hypothalamic damage or neurosurgery or AIDS. Findings include hypotonic hyponatremia, oliguria with increased sodium in the urine. Treatment is water restriction followed by hypertonic saline and then demeclocycline.

  • Central diabetes insipidus caused by hypothalamic damage, decreasing ADH production. Findings include polyuria without concentration. The treatment is desmopressin.


The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Contributed by M. Philip Mathew, DO

(Video) Diencephalon Anatomy (Thalamus, Epithalamus, Subthalamus, Metathalamus, Hypothalamus)


Brain and spinal cord illustration. Cerebellum, diencephalon, optic nerve, hypothalamus, midbrain, pons, medulla. Contributed by Chelsea Rowe



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(Video) Hypothalamus: nuclei and connections (preview) - Human Anatomy | Kenhub


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(Video) The Hypothalamus, Nuclei and Functions, Dr Adel Bondok Making Anatomy Simple


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Why is it difficult to study the hypothalamus? ›

It has been really difficult for neuroscientists to study the hypothalamus because it is a very deep part of the brain and is also really small.

What is hypothalamus in Neuroanatomy? ›

The hypothalamus is a bilateral collection of nuclei divided into three zones surrounding the third ventricle and the mammillary bodies. Generally, the periventricular zone nuclei regulate the endocrine system, and the medial and lateral nuclei regulate autonomic and somatic behavior.

What is the trick to learn hypothalamus? ›

Hypothalamus is a Cow

Imagine a Crying and Farting Cow when recalling the Hypothalamus. Mammary and Memory have similar sounds.

What responses does the hypothalamus have? ›

Your hypothalamus receives chemical messages from nerve cells in your brain and from nerve cells in your body (your peripheral nervous system), which is also responding to signals outside your body. Your hypothalamus's main function is to react to these messages to keep your body in a stable state or internal balance.

Why is brain research difficult? ›

The details of the brain may be way beyond human capacity and capability to understand, so we may more and more need to rely on computer models to give us correct answers without us knowing why those particular answers are correct.”

Can we live without hypothalamus? ›

It is essential in many body functions, from growth and development to mood, heart health, and childbirth. There is an important relationship between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, and dysfunction of one will lead to dysfunction of the other.

Which is one of the 3 functions of the hypothalamus? ›

The hypothalamus is an area of the brain that produces hormones that control: Body temperature. Heart rate. Hunger.

Is hypothalamus a neural organ? ›

The hypothalamus has a central neuroendocrine function, most notably by its control of the anterior pituitary, which in turn regulates various endocrine glands and organs.

Why is the hypothalamus the most important part of the brain? ›

The hypothalamus is arguably the most essential of the endocrine system. By alerting the pituitary gland to release certain hormones to the rest of the endocrine system, the hypothalamus ensures that the internal processes of your body are balanced and working as they should.

What is the hypothalamus weakness? ›

Hypothalamus dysfunction can lead to absent or delayed puberty and no sense of smell, as in Kallman syndrome. This is a genetic condition that causes problems with the hypothalamus. It means you won't have enough hormones for sexual development.

Does the hypothalamus have anything to do with memory? ›

Overall, these results suggest that hypothalamus or hypothalamus-like regions play critical roles in regulating diverse types of learning and memory, both related and unrelated to food.

Does hypothalamus have to do with sleep? ›

The hypothalamus is now recognized as a key center for sleep regulation, with hypothalamic neurotransmitter systems providing the framework for therapeutic advances. An increased awareness of the close interaction between sleep and homeostatic systems is also emerging.

Is I love you from the bottom of my hypothalamus? ›

Oh, I love you… from the bottom of my hypothalamus. I will always be ready for your long-term care and attention. I believe we could really get along. I'll be with you soon, my pituitary gland.

What are the 9 hormones of the hypothalamus? ›

Your hypothalamus makes the following hormones to communicate with and stimulate your pituitary gland:
  • Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH).
  • Dopamine.
  • Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH).
  • Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH).
  • Somatostatin.
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH).
Apr 4, 2022

What is the most complex thing in the universe? ›

In comparison, the human brain has approximately 1×10¹¹ neurons that interconnect with each other 1×10¹⁵ times (in a changing manner). All this with a weight of around 1.5 kg and a volume of 1,300 cubic centimeters.

Who has the most complicated brain in the world? ›

The most complex brains are found in squids (Theutidae) and octopods (Octopoda) [7]. The nervous system and brain of Octopus is the largest and most complex one among invertebrates [19,20].

How do you keep your hypothalamus happy? ›

What are some tips for a healthy hypothalamus?
  1. Eat a balanced diet. While eating a balanced diet is important for every body part, it's especially crucial when it comes to the hypothalamus. ...
  2. Get enough sleep. A 2014 study in rats found that sleep deprivation was associated with hypothalamic dysfunction. ...
  3. Exercise regularly.
Mar 21, 2018

Why is the hypothalamus unique? ›

The hypothalamus is the only brain region that has both direct neural input and output to the peripheral nervous system.

Does the hypothalamus control love? ›

The brain seals the deal by releasing oxytocin, often called “the love hormone.” It's a neuropeptide produced in the hypothalamus and secreted by the pituitary gland during times of intimacy, like hugging, breastfeeding and orgasm.

What drugs affect the hypothalamus? ›

Addictive drugs (opiates, ethanol, cannabinoids (CBs), nicotine, cocaine, amphetamines) induce activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, with the subsequent release of adrenocorticotropic hormone and glucocorticoids.

What feeds the hypothalamus? ›

What nutrients help the hypothalamus? Foods rich in polyphenols may help improve the functioning of the hypothalamus. Several vitamins, including vitamin C, thiamine, and vitamin B12, may also aid the functioning of the hypothalamus. The main sources of these nutrients include a variety of fruits and vegetables.

What organs does the hypothalamus control? ›

The hypothalamus ultimately affects the functions of the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, adrenal glands, kidneys, musculoskeletal system, and reproductive organs.

Can the hypothalamus be damaged? ›

Hypothalamus damage can occur due to various conditions such as a head injury, tumor, and immune diseases. The hypothalamus plays a crucial role in many of our bodily functions which can be lost after a traumatic event such as a head injury or tumor.

What happens if the hypothalamus is damaged? ›

Damage to the hypothalamus may cause disruptions in body temperature regulation, growth, weight, sodium and water balance, milk production, emotions, and sleep cycles.

Is the amygdala the hypothalamus? ›

Studies in humans and other mammals indicate that the amygdala is a key component of a broader neural circuit that modulates aggressive behavior and also includes the hypothalamus, hippocampus, orbitofrontal cortex, and periaqueductal gray (PAG) matter.

What is hypothalamus in simple words? ›

(HY-poh-THA-luh-mus) The area of the brain that controls body temperature, hunger, and thirst.

How do you know if you have a hypothalamus problem? ›

Tests for Hypothalamus Disorders

Blood tests. Urine tests. Visual field eye exams. Brain MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and CT (computed tomography) scans.

Why is the hypothalamus called the master of the master gland? ›

The hypothalamus is the master switchboard. It's the part of the brain that controls the endocrine system. That pea-sized structure hanging below it is the pituitary gland. It's called the master gland because it regulates the activity of the glands.

What mental illness affects the hypothalamus? ›

“We observed that this brain region [the hypothalamus] is enlarged in people with depression as well as in those with bipolar disorder, two types of affective disorders.” Importantly, in the case of people with depression, hypothalamus size correlated directly with the severity of the condition.

What shrinks the hypothalamus? ›

A team of researchers found that taking birth control pills regularly have a smaller hypothalamus compared to other women who do not take these pills.

Does the hypothalamus control personality? ›

There appears to be both clinical and experimental proof that this region is in some way associated with the regulation of personality and mood and that lesions in this region may cause changes in personality and mood.

Do emotions come from the hypothalamus? ›

Hypothalamus is involved in expression of emotions

The hypothalamus also plays an important role in emotion. Lateral parts of the hypothalamus are involved in emotions such as pleasure and rage, while the median part is associated with aversion, displeasure, and a tendency to uncontrollable and loud laughing.

Does the hypothalamus control fatigue? ›

These include fatigue and metabolic dysfunction. The etiologies of these signs and symptoms are undoubtedly multifactorial. However, the hypothalamus is known to regulate a number of homeostatic systems, including sleep, motivated behaviors, appetite, and basal metabolic rate.

Does melatonin help hypothalamus? ›

Melatonin also has the capability to suppress the release of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a hormone that promotes cholangiocyte proliferation when serum levels are elevated.

Does melatonin affect hypothalamus? ›

Blood levels of the pineal hormone melatonin are high at night and low during the day. Its secretion is regulated by a rhythm-generating system located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, which is in turn regulated by light.

Can the hypothalamus regenerate? ›

Hypothalamic and pituitary functions can be impaired under various conditions, including genetic disorders, tumors, inflammation, and surgery. However, their regeneration remains largely unclear.

Can diet affect hypothalamus? ›

The increased consumption of unhealthy energy-rich diets that are high in fat and sugars results in oxidative stress and inflammation leading to hypothalamic dysfunction, which has been linked with these diseases.

Does COVID affect the hypothalamus? ›

In a postmortem study of COVID-19 patients, areas of necrosis/infarction were seen in one out of the nineteen pituitaries [51]. Genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 have also been detected in the pituitary and hypothalamus postmortem studies, implying a direct hypothalamic injury induced by the virus [52,53].

What does the hypothalamus do in attraction? ›

Dopamine, which is produced by your hypothalamus, is released during the stage of attraction, specifically when we spend time with someone we are attracted to or when we engage in sexual intercourse with them.

What part of the hypothalamus motivates us to eat? ›

The LH is generally known as the hunger center, and two of its main functions are the stimulation of feeding behavior and arousal. Electrical stimulation of the LH results in ravenous eating behavior, and animals are extremely motivated to work for a food reward (Stuber and Wise, 2016).

Is the hypothalamus male or female? ›

Introduction. The hypothalamus is inherently female. Testosterone 'defeminizes' the brain during embryogenesis and eliminates the GnRH surge centre in males. The female foetus has no testes to produce testosterone, thus develops a hypothalamic GnRH surge centre.

How can I activate my pituitary gland naturally? ›

Diet changes, such as reducing sugar, exercising regularly, and certain supplements may help naturally increase levels of human growth hormone. Human growth hormone (HGH) is an important hormone produced by your pituitary gland. Also known as growth hormone (GH), it plays a key role in regulating growth in children.

What lobe is the hypothalamus in? ›

Answer and Explanation: The hypothalamus, as well as other organs that form part of the limbic system such as the hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, and mammillary body, is located deep within the medial temporal lobe.

Is hypothalamus oxytocin? ›

Your hypothalamus makes oxytocin, but your posterior pituitary gland stores and releases it into your bloodstream. Hormones are chemicals that coordinate different functions in your body by carrying messages through your blood to your organs, muscles and other tissues.

What is unique about the hypothalamus? ›

The hypothalamus is the only brain region that has both direct neural input and output to the peripheral nervous system.

What potential problems does the hypothalamus have? ›

Disorders of the hypothalamus can result in appetite, temperature and sleep disorders. As an example, hypothalamic obesity occasionally develops in response to major hypothalamic injury/damage affecting the centers of appetite regulation and energy balance.

What are the 7 functions of the hypothalamus? ›

While it's very small, the hypothalamus plays a crucial role in many important functions, including:
  • releasing hormones.
  • maintaining daily physiological cycles.
  • controlling appetite.
  • managing sexual behavior.
  • regulating emotional responses.
  • regulating body temperature.
Mar 21, 2018

What are the two main parts of the hypothalamus? ›

It is composed of two parts, anterior and lateral, and contains the following nucleus: dorsomedial, ventromedial, paraventricular, supraoptic, and arcuate (Figure 2). The ventromedial area is involved in controlling the habits of eating and the feeling of satiety [12].

What is the most common hypothalamus disorder? ›

Hypothalamic Disease

Hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus are common manifestations. In severe cases, patients can develop hydrocephalus. Inflammation can result in meningitis. Diabetes insipidus is the most common and often the initial manifestation.

What doctor treats hypothalamus? ›

An endocrinologist specialises in the diagnosis and treatment of hormone problems. Generally, most conditions affecting the pituitary gland and hypothalamus can be treated. If the cause is a tumour, surgery will be considered. If not, it is possible to treat a hormone deficiency with hormone supplements.


1. Hypothalamus - Structure & Function - Neuroanatomy
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2. Hypothalamus: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain Dissections
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3. Neuroanatomy : Diencephalon, Thalamus & Hypothalamus
4. Neuroanatomy│Hypothalamus│Brain 3D Animation │Damir del Monte & Team │ Encephalon Hirnwelten
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5. Neuronantomy Chapter 13 part 1|Hypothalamus|connections of Hypothalamus|Function of Hypothalamus
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6. 2-Minute Neuroscience: Hypothalamus & Pituitary Gland
(Neuroscientifically Challenged)


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